Meadow Death-camas
Zigadenus venenosus
S. Wats.
Family: Liliaceae, Lily
Genus: Zigadenus

Description
General: erect perennial, stem mostly 20-50 cm tall, from
oval bulbs covered with blackish scales.
Leaves: mainly basal, grass-like, 10-30 cm long and
3-7 mm broad, keeled. Stem leaves few, strongly reduced
upward.
Flowers: many in a simple, terminal, spike-like cluster,
but sometimes the cluster branched at the base, rarely
over 15 cm long in fruit. Flower stalks strongly ascending,
5-20 mm long. The 6 tepals white to cream-colored,
unequal, the outer ones 4.5-5 mm long, ovate to ovate-
lanceolate, blunt to pointed, the claw almost lacking to as
much as 1 mm long, the inner tepals about 0.5 mm longer
and with a narrower claw 0.75-1.25 mm long, the gland
yellowish-green, oval, usually broader than long. Stamens
from about equal to the tepals to 1 mm longer, attached at
the base of the ovary. Styles 2-3 mm long.
Flowering time: April-July.
Fruits:
capsules, 3-lobed, 8-15 mm. long. Seeds light
brown, 5-6 mm long.

Distribution
Dry meadows to grassy hillsides, sagebrush slopes, and
montane forest in exposed places, in most parts of MT.
Also from s. B.C. and Alberta to WA, OR, CA, CO, and e.
to SD, ND and NE.

Poisonous plant, see below.
(click on image for full size)


Contents
Identification
English Names Index
Scientific Names Index
Family Index
(click on images for full size)

All parts of this plant contain the poisonous alkaloid zygadenine, which some claim to be more potent than strychnine. One bulb, raw or cooked, can be fatal. Poisoning result from confusing these bulbs with those of edible species. The bulbs of death camas are oval and covered with blackish scales. This plant causes fatalities among livestock. The lethal dose is estimated at between 2.0-6.0% of animal body weight, and this species is considered to be more toxic than
mountain death camas, Zigadenus elegans. Symptoms of poisoning are similar for all species of animals. Symptoms in sheep include excessive salivation, froth around the nose and mouth, nausea, vomiting, muscular weakness, ataxia, possible coma, and death. The heart fails before respiration. Postmortem findings reveal the heart in complete diastole. Lesions include severe pulmonary congestion, hemorrhage, and edema. Humans have been poisoned after ingesting the bulbs and flowers. In most cases, the bulbs are mistaken for onions. A 2-year-old child became ill after eating the blossoms. Symptoms of poisoning include vomiting, slow breathing, inconsciousness (though responsive to pain or movement), hyperactive tendons and limbs, pupil dilation, and hypotension. The alkaloids cause local irritation when ingested and affect the cardiovascular system by slowing the heart and decreasing blood pressure. Treatment includes emesis, activated charcoal, and saline cathartic. Atropine was also given.



Varieties:

Our specimen belong to var. gramineus (Rydb.) Walsh, which has upper stem leaves, except the greatly reduced bracts of the inflorescence, all sheathing. Outer tepals almost clawless, the claw scarcely 0.5 mm long. Raceme sometimes compound.


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