Linaria - Toadflax
Scrophulariaceae
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Toadflaxes are introduced plants, often found on disturbed, cultivated or waste ground. They are ill-scented perennials, often with a bluish cast. The flowers are yellow, with a fuzzy orange lower lip, and are extended back in a straight, slender spur. They are arranged in clusters of several flowers. The species produce numerous seeds and spread by creeping roots.
Common toadflax is said to be a strong liver stimulant with little effect on normal bile production, but capable of stimulating secretion when levels are low. It was usually taken with other herbs to treat persistent liver problems.
 
Guide to Identify Species of Genus Linaria
STEMS ASCENDING TO ERECT, BRANCHING
L. dalmatica - Dalmatian Toadflax
Plant trailing to erect, branching. Disturbed ground at low elevations.
Flowers yellow with orange on lower lip, in open clusters from branches.
Leaves alternate, numerous, broadly lance-shaped, with bluish cast.
STEMS ERECT, UNBRANCHED
L. vulgaris - Common Toadflax or Butter-and-eggs
Plant 20-80 cm tall, erect, unbranched. Disturbed ground, plains to montane.
Flowers yellow with orange on lower lip, in tall, slender clusters.
Leaves alternate, numerous, linear, with bluish cast.
 
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