Orchidaceae - Orchid Family
Contents English Names Index
 
Orchidaceae is a very large family that contains at least 20,000 species and 735 genera, distributed throughout the world except in the coldest areas, and most numerous in damp equatorial regions.
The flowers are the most highly evolved of the plant kingdom; they have three sepals and three petals and sometimes grow singly, but more usually appear with other flowers on spikes, growing up one side of the main stem, or all around the main stem, which may be upright or drooping.
The lowest petal of each flower, the lip, is usually large, and may be spurred, fringed, pouched, or crested. Orchid fruits are usually 1-chambered capsules with many very small seeds.
Many tropical orchids are epiphytes – attached to trees but feeding independently on decayed plant and animal remains and rainwater – but temperate orchids commonly grow on the ground.
 
General Key to Identify which Genus a Species Belongs to
  1a.
.
Plants lacking green stems and leaves, stems yellow
to reddish-brown, underground parts coral-like.................

Corallorhiza
 
  1b. Plants with green stems and leaves................................ 2    
    2a. Lower lip of flowers inflated, pouch-like...................... 3    
      3a.
.
Leaves 2 or more, basal or on flowering stems,
flowers white to yellow......................................

Cypripedium
 
      3b. Leaves single, basal, flowers pink to purple.......... Calypso  
    2b. Lower lip of flowers not pouch-like............................. 4    
      4a.
.
Flowers with a spur projecting downwards from
the base of the lower lip......................................

5
   
        5a.
.
Flowers white to pale pink, spotted with
purple........................................................

Orchis
 
        5b. Flowers white to green, not spotted............. 6    
          6a.
.
Lip petal 3-lobed at tip, bracts much
longer than flowers..............................

Coeloglossum
 
          6b. Lip petal not lobed at tip...................... 7    
            7a.
.
.
Sepals 1-nerved, basal leaves
usually withered at flowering time.............................................

Piperia
 
            7b.
.
Sepals 3-nerved, basal leaves
green at flowering time..................

Platanthera
 
      4b. Flowers without spurs....................................... 8    
        8a.
.
.
Flowering stems leafless, leaves in a
basal rosette, dark green, mottled or
striped with white veins...............................


Goodyera
 
        8b. Flowering stems with some leaves.............. 9    
          9a.
.
Leaves 2, opposite, egg-shaped to
round, usually less than 5 cm long.......

Listera
 
          9b.
.

Leaves several, alternate, oblong
to linear, lower leaves more than
5 cm long...........................................


Spiranthes
 
Alphabetical listing with links to presented species of the Orchid family:
     
Scientific Name English Name Swedish Name
 

 

 
Calypso
C. bulbosa
Coeloglossum
C. viride
Corallorhiza
C. maculata
C. striata
C. trifida
C. wisteriana
Goodyera
G. oblongifolia
Piperia
P. unalascensis
Platanthera
P. dilatata
P. hyperborea
Spiranthes
S. romanzoffiana
Fairyslipper
Fairyslipper
Bracted Orchid
Bracted Orchid
Coralroot
Spotted Coralroot
Striped Coralroot
Yellow Coralroot
Spring Coralroot
Rattlesnake Plantain
Western Rattlesnake-plantain
Rein-orchid
Alaska Rein-orchid
Bog-orchid, Rein-orchid
White Rein-orchid
Green Rein-orchid
Ladies' Tresses
Hooded Ladies' Tresses
Nornor
Norna
Grönkullor
Grönkulla
Korallrötter
-
-
Korallrot
-
Knärötter
-
-
-
Nattvioler
-
-
Skruvax
-
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